So, friends — today will be a post about how the USSR destroyed science. In the “Classmates” I regularly meet links to articles about what they say let’s see what scientific nation was the USSR! They say only because of “the advanced Soviet science,” we won the war, and in General almost all of Europe is conquered! A little more — and to the Atlantic ocean it came, and there to defeat America not long it would be!
In fact, everything was exactly the opposite, I would call USSR, very anti –scientific country, especially in 1930-1950-ies, so beloved of the Stalinists, according to them, it was then “the true lamp of the USSR.” If in a purely technical sphere, something more or less created, in the basic Sciences were full of horror and defeat. In the specified historical period advanced science in the USSR was forbidden, and the development of others was broken through the prism of Marxism-Leninism. Like, if science suits us — it is good, but if at least some sideways hurts Marxism-Leninism — it is the whore of the bourgeoisie and in General fiction. In General, it would have been funny if it would not be so sad.
So, below is the story of how the USSR destroyed the science and about the myth of “the scientific state”. Make sure you check out the article below, it is interesting and also share your opinions about all you have seen in the comments. Well, friends to add do not forget)
Living in the shadow of the cult of personality.
First, a little history and political backdrops of the events. Around the beginning of the 1930-ies in the USSR established a comprehensive personality cult of Stalin, whose personality has covered almost all spheres of Soviet life — with quotations from the speeches of Stalin began the morning radio programs, and finished the afterword, in practical guidelines for the milking cows. Comrade Stalin-Dzhugashvili in childhood was beaten by his father, he grew up insecure and angry personand was unable to get a meaningful education — all of this has a direct impact on his actions after coming to power.
First, start spreading the myth that comrade Stalin was a great scholar — in the country tens of volumes published allegations of comrade Stalin on all questions of science, from quantum physics to linguistics. Along the way it became clear that dropout of Church Seminary Trinity Dzhugashvili well versed in all these Sciences and has an opinion on each of them (almost like Yuri Loza now) — he almost completely rejected and banned genetics, and has branded the theory of relativity for hostile Marxist ideology of the bourgeois framework, and Cybernetics swore almost Mat, arguing with her like a drunkard with a mirror.
Secondly, soon after coming to power, Stalin and his clique (same dropouts, conspirators and conspiracy theorists) have suddenly realized that there is Academy of science, which still largely operates by pre-revolutionary standards — scientists have their own opinion on many issues, they viditeli, dare to disagree with the Soviet propanedione, there is even a scientist, Pavlov, lautet some kind of Nobel prize (what is it? Hell knows, bourgeois something), which speaks against. And they dare to pursue an independent meeting — I suppose the counter-revolution there cook!
Of course, the last could not. In 1926 with the direct intervention of Stalin’s Academy of Sciences was stripped of its autonomy was abolished and its Charter. In 1929, scientists have charged that their progress lagged behind practice. In 1930, the great scholar of Stalin will that he, you know, is not acceptable genetic principles of Weismann, followed by the ban of genetics across the country.
And now more about science that were prohibited in the USSR.
Genetics — “whore of imperialism.”
Direct prohibition of genetics in the USSR, as mentioned above, initiated personally by Stalin. Very interesting as in fact it all began to prevent genetics was created apparent legitimate reason and supposedly scientific discussion. “Debate” was the fact that scientists, supporters of genetics were attacked by all sorts of bawlers Shvonder, which read as green vitriol correspondence with Engels, Kautsky and threw scientists from around the world with quotes like you popularitate the whore of world imperialism and Zionism, to stop the development of a socialist society. At the end of such “discussions”, it was believed that the winners are those who more and louder dumped that’s such demagoguery.
Was particularly zealous Lysenko, pastory, whose “doctrine” in the USSR was seen as “proletarian revolutionary replacement of the bourgeois genetics”. This idiot knew little of science, but by heart learned vyjivaniya scoop — curse of the competitors, sought and denounced the enemies, argued that the citizens of the “great land of the Soviets” may not have hereditary diseases, and all the talk about genes is all viditeli, “based on racism”. Yet this bastard was doing so — was first given to speak of his opponents, then zachital its report “devastating criticism of genetics” and at the end added that its report was approved personally by comrade Stalin. It turns out that those who opposed Lysenko were as it were, and against Stalin personally.
In 1937, many geneticists were arrested, many (for example, academician Nadson) died in prison. In 1940, Vavilov was arrested one time, he work in the laboratory of Batson in England, and without thinking made a “British spy.” In 1943 Vavilov died in Saratov prison from exhaustion, the same fate befell other prominent scholars.
The prohibition of Cybernetics in the USSR.
I think many people have heard that in the early Soviet Union Cybernetics was banned, but there is more to say about why it was banned. And in the Communist Soviet Union and Nazi Germany was ruled by totalitarian ideologies, built on the same similar principle — the society was divided into parts, one of which was made responsible for all the ills, and then had to be destroyed. In the USSR it was the “bourgeoisie” and the higher classes of society, in Nazi Germany Jews and other “subhumans”. “Subhuman” cut in rights and are not destroyed for his actions, but only for the fact that in no way depended on him and was predetermined before birth — belonging to a particular nation (in Nazi Germany) or to a particular class (in the USSR).
For “legislative recognition” of such wishes things both the totalitarian regime tried to enlist the support of the science — pseudo-science of Hitler’s skull was measured with a ruler and wrote the clouds of pseudo-scientific writings about the “superiority of the Aryan race”, and in Stalin’s Soviet Union tried to bring a “scientific basis” under the “class society” Marx and materialist dialectics.
Introduced in 1940-ies Cybernetics was seriously frightened by Soviet propagandists, as it undermined the foundations of Marxism and Soviet materialism — if people will eventually be able to replace robots, something to do with all the stories about the “eternal struggle of the workers for their rights”, then where to tie all these “social classes”? It turns out that our “communism” is not an eternal goal, and just one of the stages of development of the society, which may pass? And then, if a computing machine can control production and even government, then why should the Politburo and Stalin himself?
“Cybernetics — Marxism is alien to the W…ovsky science” — spoke once the great leader and scientist, after which the science was banned in the USSR until the mid-1950-ies. Computing in the Soviet Union with more or less developed, but were devoid of theoretical foundations and in the end around behind the developed countries.
The destruction of philosophy.
In pre-revolutionary times in Russia was a good philosophical schools, some with quite original ideas (the same example), but in the 1920-ies it ended — in 1922 of the Soviet Russia was expelled a group of prominent philosophers on the famous “philosophical steamer”. Came to power Ball as it said nothing but “Marxism-Leninism”, we don’t need — put, shooting or expelling other philosophers.
“Great scientist” Dzhugashvili was well versed not only in genetics and Cybernetics, but also in philosophy, especially as it was a great chance to take revenge, finally, for all the humiliation and twos-threes on philosophical subjects in a Seminary. Comrade Stalin loved to attend the meetings of the Soviet philosophers, then, after verdict, calling some “menshinstvo idealists” and others “extremely interested in dialectics”. After the wise comments of the leader of the Soviet philosophy immediately took the right course of development.
But seriously — it is no philosophy in the Soviet Union simply did not exist. The task of Soviet “philosophers” was only to “theoretically justify” the ideas of communism and class society, which used all sorts of demagogic tricks and was introduced dogmas, questioning that it was forbidden. In all philosophical schools in the form of religious dogma taught “history of the CPSU(b),” which were essays Stalin. This course was the “true interpretation” of all questions of Marxism-Leninism, do not allow arbitrary interpretations.
After Stalin’s death, his essays have disappeared from the “short course”, but the dogmatism of Soviet philosophy remained alive until 1991.
On the ruins of science. Instead of an epilogue.
Not to make the post too large, I did not write separate sections on linguistics, information theory, literary criticism — all these “science” in the USSR (especially in the period before 1955) to some extent distorted the true picture of the world, adjusting it under “Marxism-Leninism”. Sociology did not exist as such in its replaced by the simulacrum called “Marxist social science”. In 1938, was closed by the Kiev Institute of demography, as shown truthful information losses in Ukraine from famine in the early 1930s; the staff of the Institute were arrested and executed. Not in the USSR and historical science — its myths substituted the Marxist-leninskom the spirit that five thousand years ago people dreamed about communism.
In General, can continue indefinitely. As you can see, all the stories that the USSR was some kind of “scientific driveway” — are nothing more than a myth. Stanislaw LEM once said quite rightly that any totalitarian state exists until the next technological revolution, with the USSR and it was all “research” in the USSR was subordinated to the Marxism-Leninism, and the further development of science elsewhere in the world — the more cracked “Soviet theory”, created in isolation from civilization.
And you can continue to believe in myths about what “a great scientific nation” was the USSR.